Essay entitled “Major Causes of Climate Change and Three Possible Strategies to Address Its Negative Impact” is my essay assignment on my “Academic English Program AE4B” conducted by UTS-INSEARCH in March 2018. For those who wanna read this essay in my Researchgate account please click on this link. Moreover, the full article is as follow.
Nowadays, people around the world has been focusing on facing climate change. Climate change is the major global challenge today, and the world is becoming more vulnerable to this change. The recent report from United Nations predicted that average global temperature could increase by 6˚ Celsius at the end of the century (Vidal 2013). Increasing temperature causes warming oceans and lead to changing on weather and rainfall pattern which threats both urban and rural population. Australian Academy of Science defines climate change as the long term change in weather pattern which causes several events such as melting of polar ice, raising sea level, and increasing intensity of natural disaster (Australian Academy of Science 2018). This essay outlines the main problems caused by climate change, and evaluate three possible strategies to address its negative impacts. The essay argues that climate change has negative impacts on human life. However, its impact could significantly be reduced by implementing three strategies, including supporting green transportation, building green city and implementing organic farming.
There are various potential impacts of climate change on human life. Firstly, the rise of sea level as a result of increasing global temperature and melting of polar ice. A report from Union of Concerned Scientist points out that average global sea level has increased by 8 inches since last century (Union of Concerned Scientists 2018). This increases the risk for low laying areas from flood and threats coastal properties. Nowadays, 65% of major cities are located in low-laying coastal zones (Nordhaus 2006, cited in Hunt & Watkiss 2010). Secondly, climate change may also affect on energy demand. European Environmental Agency claims that there has been increasing trend in cooling demand during summer season and predicts 30% increase in the use of energy by 2080 due to air conditioning (Hunt & Watkiss 2010). Another impact of climate change is the effect on human health. The report from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) points out that climate change affects human health due to decreasing quality of fresh air caused by air pollution and disruption of food supplies (WHO 2007). These three impacts are the major impacts of climate change, and it would be worsened by the rapid growth of urbanisation and population. Without systematic and organised action, such effects from climate changes will be become more difficult in the future.
In order to address the effects of climate change, there are three strategies that can be done. First of all by establishing green transportation. Transportation is the most important sources of emission (United Nations Development Programe UNDP 2012). United States Environmental Agency reported that transportation sectors are responsible for 27% gas emission in the USA in 2015 and nearly 95% are from fossil fuel (EPA 2018b). Green transport is established by reducing the use of private car and encouraging public transport. In addition, vehicle should be eco-friendly and encourage using renewable energy. The government may impose pool sharing policy to reduce the use of private car which is being successful in the US (BBC 2018). Moreover, the industry sector is also stimulated to develop green car technology which is reduce fuel consumption and pollution.
The other strategies that may reduce the impact of climate change is the development of green cities. City is the centre of population nowadays. More than 50% of world population lives in the city, and by 2050 urban dwellers is expected to reach 66% of world population (FAO 2018). United Nation Development Program reported that around two-thirds of global energy use are coming from urban areas (United Nations Development Programe UNDP 2012). Cities are responsible for 67% of energy demand and major contributors of greenhouse gas emission. Building greener city cannot only be done by developing and planting urban trees but also by implementing better urban planning. Urban planning means that city development and infrastructures such as transportation, sanitation, water management, housing and other cities facilities are well managed. Singapore is one of the successful cities on implementing green urban planning by reduction of vehicular emission, development green building and implementation energy efficiency (Koh 2012, cited in Hunt & Watkiss 2010).
In addition to accomplish the two previous strategies, this essay proposes the application of organic farming. Agriculture sectors contribute around 24% of global emission, it mostly comes from the use of fertilizer in crop and livestock production (EPA 2018a). Organic farming means using non-chemical fertilizer and local input in its production process. Chemical fertilizer is commonly used in conventional farming, and it is the source of gas emission. Organic farming would produce healthier food and support food sovereignty since it encourage sustainability in agriculture production.
To sum up, climate change has negative impacts on human life. There are many problems that is caused by climate change, including increasing sea level, rising demand on energy, and threatening human health. This essay argues that three solutions including: supporting green transportation, building greener city and implementing organic farming could significantly address these problems.
Australian Academy of Science 2018, What is climate change?, viewed 23 March 2018, <https://www.science.org.au/learning/general-audience/science-booklets-0/science-climate-change/1-what-climate-change>.
BBC 2018, Management strategies and their limitations, viewed 21 March 2018, <https://www.bbc.com/education/guides/zx666sg/revision/4>.
EPA, U.S.E.P.A. 2018a, Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data, viewed 22 March 2018, <https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data>.
EPA, U.S.E.P.A. 2018b, Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, viewed 21 March 2018, <https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/sources-greenhouse-gas-emissions>.
FAO 2018, ‘Building greener cities: nine benefits of urban trees’, 2018, viewed 20 March 2018, <http://www.fao.org/zhc/detail-events/en/c/454543/>.
Hunt, A. & Watkiss, P. 2010, ‘Climate change impacts and adaptation in cities: a review of the literature’, Climatic Change, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 13–49.
Union of Concerned Scientists 2018, Global Warming Impacts, The consequences of climate change are already here, viewed 23 March 2018, <https://www.ucsusa.org/our-work/global-warming/science-and-impacts/global-warming-impacts#.WrNrm5f-vIU>.
United Nations Development Programe UNDP 2012, Building Greener City, Singapore.
Vidal, J. 2013, ‘Climate Change Will Hit Poor Countries Hardest, Study Shows’, The Guardian, 27 September.
WHO 2007, ‘Reducing the impact of climate change’, Bulleting of the World Health Organization, November, p. 6.